Everything about Diabetes
Q 1:- What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a medical condition where amount of glucose in the blood is higher than normal range because body cannot use it properly. This happens because either your pancreas can’t produce enough insulin or insulin does not work properly (known as insulin resistance).
Q 2:- What are types of diabetes?
(I) Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes develops if pancreas is unable to produce any insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and adolescents. Type 1 Diabetes is treated with daily insulin injections, a healthy diet and regular physical activity.
(ii) Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is most common diabetes, usually develops in adults (after 30 yrs of age). Type 2 Diabetes develops when pancreas can still make some insulin, but not enough or when the insulin that is produced does not work properly (knows as insulin resistance).Type 2 diabetes is treated with a healthy diet and regular exercise. In addition to this, medications and/or insulin are often required.
(iii) Gestational Diabetes
Diabetes in pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. Women with gestational diabetes have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in future.
(iv) Other type of diabetes
Diabetes seen in genetic syndromes, caused by defect in insulin secretion/action
Q 3:- Who is at risk developing Diabetes?
Anyone can develop diabetes but following factors increase the risk of diabetes:
If any of your close family members has diabetes (Parents, brother or sister)
- Overweight or obese (Body mass index >23) kg/m2
- No physical activity/ sedentary lifestyle
- Women who delivered a baby weighing > 4kg or were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy
- High blood pressure
- High blood cholesterol
- Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Ischemic Heart disease patients
Q 4:- What are the symptoms of Diabetes?
Not all people with diabetes have symptoms, But few common symptoms of diabetes are:-
If you have any of these symptoms, you should get your blood glucose checked.
Q 5:- who should be investigated for diabetes?
After age of 40 years all people should get their blood glucose checked routinely even in absence of symptoms and risk factors. If your blood glucose is normal, you should get it checked regular once in 2-3 years.
Q 6:- How does diabetes affect one’s health?
Poorly managed diabetes can lead to various health complications over period of time.
- Coronary heart disease, which can lead to a heart attack.
- Cerebrovascular disease, which can lead to stroke (Paralysis).
- Retinopathy (disease of the eye), which can lead to blindness.
- Nephropathy (disease of the kidney), which can lead to kidney failure and need for Dialysis.
- Neuropathy (disease of the nerves), which can lead to numbness, burning or loss of sensation in the feet ,ulceration of the foot requiring amputation.
- Erectile dysfunction etc.
Q 7:- How can I avoid these complications if I have diabetes?
Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be successfully controlled. In order to stay away from complication, it is important that your blood glucose, blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels are adequately controlled. Eating a balanced diet, managing your weight and following a healthy lifestyle together with taking your prescribed treatment and regular monitoring is important.
Q 8:- Which are regular investigations required in diabetes?
- EVERY VISIT- Blood glucose, blood pressure
- 3 MONTHLY- HbA1c (Glycated hemoglobin)
- YEARLY- Kidney function test (KFT), lipid profile, fundus for diabetic retinopathy, urine for micro albumin, foot examination.
This test gives an estimate for average blood glucose control over past 3 months
Q9:- What are the goals to achieve for good diabetes control?
- Pre meal blood glucose 70-130mg/dl
- Post meal blood glucose <180mg/dl
- HbA1c (Glycated hemoglobin) <7.0%
- Blood pressure <140/90 mmHg
- LDL Cholesterol <100 mg/dl
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